Cordon Noir Education / Professional Chef
Rank/ Duties/ Mise-en-place
Foodservice organizations vary in terms of function and size and each must have its own organization structure. The needs and sizes of food production units in restaurants, hotels, hospitals, extended care facilities and collages and universities will differ; the organization system for each, however, are much the same.
The location of the foodservice department in the organizational structure of the facility is significant. The department should be close to top management because of its complex nature and importance.
The goals of a well-organized kitchen are:
· Efficient work flow
· Effectively planned work area
· Correctly planned equipment and appliances appropriate for the size of the establishment
· Maximum use of skilled personnel
The organization of the kitchen depends on the following:
· Type of establishment
· Size of establishment
· Location of establishment
· Kitchen type
· Kitchen staff (brigade)
· Type and method of customer service
· Extent of the menu
· Operating hours
The following six kitchen types dictate different organization systems:
1. Conventional kitchen
2. Combined preparation and finishing kitchens
3. Separate preparation and finishing kitchen
4. Open or show kitchen
5. Fast-food kitchen
6. Industrial kitchen
After this information has been provided, the kitchen can be planned in one of the following ways:
In selecting one of these types of kitchens, consideration should be given to:
· Number of meals to be prepared at each meal period
· Type of service
· Customer prices
· System for serving the meal
· Serving times
· Room service 24 hrs.
After determination of these factors, it should be possible to select a kitchen plan that practical and of appropriate size. The kitchen plan must also provide:
· Flexibility related to the location and the size of the rooms
· Efficient work flow
· Provision for receiving incoming goods
· Supplies/ storeroom
· Adequate refrigeration
· Preparation kitchen (hot, cold, pastry)
· Finishing kitchen
· Sufficient service area
· Ware washing areas
· Secure flatware storage
The kitchen staff can be efficient only if the Work Flow has been properly planned.
Technical Kitchen Planning
After the type of foodservice and the organizational structure of an establishment have been determined, the planning of the kitchen my begin. Even though an architect may have expertise in kitchen planning a professional foodservice facility designer should also be assigned to the job. In addition to standard design concerns, the following areas require additional discussion:
· Optimum size ration among the individual rooms
· Proper positioning of the equipment in work area
· Good illumination of the hot and cold sections, including installation of range hoods above cooking surfaces to control smoke and steam
· Working diagrams for the utilities, water, and waste installation
· Equipment that conforms to sanitation codes
· Materials for no slip floors
· Washable wall and ceiling surfaces
· Drainage systems under sinks and washbasins and under cooking equipment where necessary
· Conformance to building codes
· Conformance to health administration and other safety standards
Before kitchen planning can begin, planning checklists must be prepared to ensure that no requirement is left out. Such checklists must contain each and every part of the kitchen(s) and annexes.
The professional kitchen consultant or designer is responsible for translating the specified requirements into building and installation plans.
He or she is also responsible for reconciling the technical requirements of the building, sanitation, heating, ventilation, refrigeration, and utility installation with the relevant official regulations. The state or local codes and standards for foodservice establishments must also be met. Only by seriously planning the kitchen in conjunction with the demands and desires of the professional staff can there needs be satisfied in a kitchen that functions efficiently and economically. Independent foodservice designers and the planning departments of foodservice equipment distributors can recommend building constructors, professional foodservice personnel, and architects who are qualified to assist with planning
Basic research and a professional kitchen planner are essential in developing kitchen designs and layouts. The following guidelines should be followed:
· Throughout the stages of planning, you must make sure that the kitchen concept is adhered to. Sometimes portions get or changed between the plan and the drawing board.
· Make sure that all regulations are followed
· Let a professional kitchen planner check your plan; he can save you a lot of worry later
· Use standard sizes as much as possible when choosing transport, racking and storage equipment
· Look at the future when planning kitchens; do not build only for today make it your business to know how kitchens should function tomorrow and beyond
· Think about routing- efficiency through short walking distance for the kitchen staff. Food items should not travel up and down the kitchen, but go in a logical straight line from storage to preparation to finishing and service
· Plan for labour saving. Aim for maximum efficiency and production with minimum effort, thus saving labour
· Good planning will facilities right up to the point where the meal is issued and served
· After good planning comes choosing the right equipment and correct tools
Kitchen can be grouped into three main types, reflecting various demands.
For small hotels and restaurants that have flexible standards for menus and portions, all departments are grouped together in blocks. Both preparation and finishing are carried out in the same areas. All hot dishes are served at one counter in the kitchen.
Separated Preparation and Finishing Kitchen (Satellite)
This system is preferred for larger establishments. The preparation and finishing blocks (satellite kitchens) are in separate rooms. Each satellite kitchen should consist of one room housing all the departments necessary for the dishes on the menu. Usually, these have no large ranges, frying pans or tilting stockpots. Instead, there are grills and griddles, microwave and convection ovens, Bain Marie and fryers. The cold and pastry sections generally include only refrigerators for storage of partially and totally finished foods.
Fast Food Kitchen
This system is of interest to establishments that have no preparation kitchen and purchasing only convenience foods. Kitchens of this type require refrigerated and dry storage areas, a preparation section for convenience foods in-corporations with microwave and convection oven and deep fryers. The cold food and pastry section consists only of storage rooms and equipment for refrigerating prepared foods. Space for washing and preparing ingredients is necessary in locations where pre-prepared fresh salads cannot be supplied.
Organization of Kitchen
In the hospitality industry, the kitchen is one of several departments. A productive and profitable operation requires the team effort of all departments. The employees of the operation form a mutual partnership. Open communication, clear directives and goals, a positive work environment and personal commitment are essential to success. The kitchen and service departments are should working in harmony to archive maximum results and guest satisfaction.
Basic Kitchen and Service Chart:
Executive Sous Chef
Chef de partie, demi chef d p
The kitchen staff is a working team of trained cooks and assistants managed by the
Head chef. The size of the staff is usually determined by the following factors:
· Type and size of establishment
· Organization of establishment
· Hours of operation
The classification of the kitchen staff depends on the type of kitchen organization. It can be organized as:
· Traditional (conventional) kitchen
· Combined production and finishing kitchen
· Separate production and finishing kitchens
· Open kitchen
· Fast-food kitchen
· Institutional kitchen
The allocation of duties (rosters and duty schedules) also depends on the type of kitchen organization. Regardless of the type of operation, however, an ideal working environment depends on management with tact and empathy and teamwork.
Small kitchen Staff
(up to 6 cooks)
Medium-sized Kitchen Staff
(7 14 cooks)
Large Kitchen Staff
(more than 15 cooks)
Ranks and Kitchen Departments Functions
In principle, the ranks of dose in the profession are the same for both conventional and modern kitchens. Only the duties and functions of the cooks differ. Job responsibilities depend on the cooks rank and position and his or her experience.
In Europes Hospitals, nursing homes and health spa facilities, dieticians and cooks with training and experience in the preparation of special diets are usually part of the kitchen staff.
Becoming a cook in many countries in Europe requires a three-year apprentice ship combined with attendance at a culinary trade school and passing a final exam. To qualify for a position in a setting that requires special diets, an additional year of formal apprentice ship training is required. An advanced professional degree with the title of chef is awarded after further education, with final exam administered by the states. The highest rank is that of diploma (master chef). Professional titles are protected by low.
Chef de cuisine (with diploma)
Responsible for all kitchen operation
Chef- Chef de cuisine
|Responsible for all kitchen operation|
|Sous-chef (second in command)-Sous-chef||Second-in-command, fills in for the chef|
|Station chefs- Chefs de partie||Line cooks, supervising at least one staff|
|Station cooks- Cuisinieur de partie||Lone cook, supervising no one|
|Independent cook- Cuisineur seul||Cook working alone|
|Assistant cooks- Commis||Inexperienced cooks, supervised by station chefs|
|Apprentices- Apprentis||Apprentices training in a kitchen and attending trade school to become a chef|
Hospital or institutional chef- Cuisinier dhotel
|Cook or diet cook, who has passed exam for hospital cooks|
|Dietitian- Dialectician||Three years special training, certified by the Swiss Red Cross|
|Diet cook- Cuisinier en dietetique||Trained cook with one year of special training in diet preparation|
The various kitchen departments have special duties. These duties should be coordinated with clear and specific directives. Flexibility is essential in todays kitchens; the function of each department and individual duties should at all times meet the needs of the organization.
Kitchen Departments and their Functions
Executive chef/ Chef de cuisine
the whole kitchen and supervises kitchen staff
Prepares rosters and assignments
Plans and designs menus
Handles purchasing and controls
Performs cost calculations
Responsible for sanitary conditions
Responsible for preparation and presentation
Communicates (visits) with guests
on the responsibilities of the executive chef when absent
Also responsible for apprentice training Often also holds a station chef position
|Sauce cook/ Saucier||Prepares sauces, meat, game, poultry, fish and warm appetizers|
|Broiler cook/ Rotisseur||Responsible for the preparation of grilled dishes and roasts and of dishes that are both oven-roasted and deep-fried|
|A la carte cook/ Restaurateur||Only
in very large kitchen brigades
Responsible for a la carte preparation
|Fish cook/ Poissonnier||Only
in very large kitchen brigades, to relieve the sauce cook
Preparation fish and seafood dishes
|Vegetable cook/ Entremetier||Prepares
soups, vegetables and potatoes, pasta, cheese and egg
Prepares spa cuisine, health - food diets and vegetarian dishes
|Pantry chef/ Garde-manger||Monitors
all cold-food preparation and controls freezer and
Bones and portions meat, game, poultry and fish
Prepares salads, cold appetizers, sauces and cold buffets
In large kitchens cold dishes are prepared by an apprentice cook (hors-deuvrier)
|Butcher/ Boucher de cuisine||Only
in large kitchen to ease the work of the pantry chef
Bones and cuts raw meat
|Pastry chef/ Patissier||Prepares all pastries and desserts; sometimes also warm pasta preparations or hot dishes involving pastries (e.g., beef Wellington)|
|Swing cook/ Tournant||Works as needed in all stations of the kitchen and replaces station chefs on their day off|
|Duty cook/ Chef de garde||Responsible
for the kitchen when the staff is not present, during
Prepares dishes ordered during those times and does mise en place
guests with special diets and nutritional requirements
Plans and performs cost calculations of special diet menus
Prepares dietary dishes
|Staff cook/ Cuisinier pour le personnel||Only
in very large foodservice operations
Prepares meals for staff
Mice-en-Place is pre-preparation and is the first step in the preparation of dishes or products. A properly organized kitchen has a correct mice-en-place routinely set up in all departments and at each post.
The saying A good mice en place is half the cooking is as true for small kitchens as it is for large preparation and finishing kitchens.
Cleaning and closing a workstation, including checking stored products, cleaning equipment and work areas, and performing necessary repairs, is also a part of mice- en-place. The general term of mice-en-place encompasses everything from the arrangement of the utensils and ingredients to the presentation of the finish product.
Basic mice-en-place involves assembling the necessary utensils, food in gradients and linens needed to perform cooking duties.
Daily and Station Mice-en-Place
Station mice-en-place reflects the daily menu, including any specials offered, banquets or other special preparation duties. All utensils and ingredients (clean and cut as needed) are put in the days dishes. Daily mice en place includes the control of ingredients. As an example, the miceen-place of ingredients for the sauce cook would encompass: fats (oil, butter, margarine), flour, corn or potato starch, fresh bread crumbs, white & red wine, lemon juice, chopped onion, parsley etc.
Mice-en-Place of Production Kitchen
The mice en place of the production kitchen is based on the needs of the daily menu and the station mice-en-place with an emphasis on food preparation.
Mice-en-Place of the Finishing Kitchen
The mice- en- place of the finishing kitchen is based on the daily menu and the station tasks with an emphasis on reconstitution and presentation. Most of the foods have been partially or fully prepared in the production kitchen.
Mise-en-place is merely organizing and completing in advance all the preliminary tasks involved in the preparation of a meal. Whether the mise- en- place is carried out for a conventional kitchen, a preparation kitchen or a finishing kitchen, prelim work must be completed methodically and carefully before further work in the kitchen can be executed. When observing the work of various chefs on the kitchen staff it is easy to recognize those who have the ability to organize their work in conjunction with a correct mise-en- place. When a kitchen is properly organized, the routine mise en place for the various departments is in written form. Department chefs should be able to give the assistant exact instructions for the daily mise-en-place on the basis of the recipe and the menu plans. The saying a good mise-en-place is half the cooking applies to small kitchens as well as to large preparation and finishing kitchens. The aim of an exact mise-en-place is to complete all the preparatory operations before the actual cooking begins. The cooking process is then simplified and unexpected orders can be filled easily and promptly. Before the service begins, each member of the cooking staff should allow himself sufficient time to check his mise-en-place thoroughly- only in this way can the service be completed in an organized manner?
We prepare a Mise-en-Place according to the following Menu:
1. Mise-en-Place of
Potage bonne femme cooking utensils
Sauté de veau 2. Mise-en-Place of
au madere the chefs tools
Epinarde en feuilles 3. Mise-en-place of
** the food
Salade de fruits
4. Mise-en-place of
the serving dishes
Proper Mise-en-Place set-up:
Pots and pans can be made of various materials. Materials for foodservice equipment should be appropriate for the specific use. The material must meet certain minimum requirements as established by the joint committee on food equipment standards.
Only such materials shall be used on the construction of foodservice equipment as will withstand normal wear, penetration of vermin, the corrosive action of foods or beverages, cleaning compounds and such other elements as my be found in the use environments and will not impart an odour, colour or taste to the food.
Ø Stainless Steel
Stainless steel is a no corrosive metal that is used more extensively than any other in the foodservice industry. Alloys of nickel, chromium are combined with steel and used for the manufacture of all kinds of equipment. It is made of 72 % steel, 18 % chrome and 10 % nickel, this formula is called 18/10. Manufacturers may vary the formula slightly.
Stainless steel has many outstanding qualities that make its use important in foodservice. Its strength, attractive appearance, permanence, smooth, hard equipment, serving counters, heavy-duty equipment, tables, machines. It is also used for kitchen utensils, pans, inserts for serving counters and tableware. Pans made of polished stainless steel are not recommended for certain uses, such as the preparation of omelettes, as the food tends to stick to the fine pores of the metal. Other important features of stainless steel are its resistance to stain, scratches, and corrosion, its ease of cleaning and the availability of different finishes, ranging from dull to bright. It is resistant to any chemical reaction with foodstuffs and may be used for all food preparation processes at any temperature. These characteristics are particularly significant for the foodservice industry, where
sanitation and safety are of utmost importance.
Iron is used for large pieces of equipment such as ranges and ovens. It is also used for griddles, grills, and frying pans. It conducts heat very well, but iron pans are heavy and difficult to clean.
Copper kitchenware was very popular in the kitchens of long ago. Traditional chefs have been reluctant to give up their shinning copper kitchenware because of its high conductivity, its attractive appearance, and its resistance to corrosion. Copper cooking utensils must be lined with stainless steel or tin to prevent reaction of foodstuffs with the cooper. The high initial costs, the heavyweight, the cost of replacing the linings, and the maintenance costs have limited the use of copper utensils in todays kitchens. These utensils are frequently used in display cooking and decorative purposes and sugar boiling.
Aluminium is a lightweight metal that is less expensive than other materials. It has high heat conductivity and is relatively easy to clean. Food with high acid and/ or alkali content attack pure aluminium. The surface of aluminium can be treated to be more resistant to corrosion, discolouration-this treatment is called anodising.
Plastics are lightweight and have only limited use in the kitchen. There are two main groups: Thermo durable and Thermoplastic. The former is harder and more resistant to heat and unbreakable, the latter, softer and less heat resistant. Plastics are most useful for storage and in the Cold kitchen (garde-manger).
Ø Non-stick Materials
Food can be fried without using fat or butter and does not stick to the pans. The material can starch easily, especially in commercial use.
Ø Glass, Porcelain and Ceramic
These have limited use for commercial kitchen equipment because they are breakable. They are often used as protective linings in equipment to prevent absorption of colours and flavours and metallic contamination. Glass is hard and resistant to acids and very high temperatures. The materials are easily cleaned and attractive.
Silver is a precious metal, and its cost makes it prohibitive for use in commercial foodservice. Silver plate is also costly: however, it is occasionally used for flatware, such as knives, forks, spoons, and for hollowware including coffee servers, teapots, pitchers, sugar bowls, sauce boats and silver platters. These items, often referred to as hotel silver are covered with a thick layer of silver plating> This sign 90 means 12 spoons and 12 large forks contain 90 gr of pure silver.
Pots and pans are available in different shapes and sizes for specific uses.
Ø Stewing Pot/ Rondeau
Ø Roasting Pan/ Rotissore
Ø Braising Pan/ Braisiere
Ø Stock Pot w/Handle/ Casserole a Manche
Ø Low Stock Pot/ Marmite Basse
Ø Double Size Stock Pot/ Marmite Haute
Ø Pressure Cooker
Ø Fish Kettle/ Poissoniere
Ø Couscous Pot
Ø Sugar Pan
Ø Frying Pan/ Poele Noir (Lyonnaise)
Ø Crepe Pan/ Poele a Crepe
Ø Non-Stick Pan/ Poele Teflon
Ø Grill Pan/ Poele a Griller
Foodservice has its standards in place. The impetus for standardization came from the Swiss. Representatives of several foodservice organizations in Switzerland met in Zurich to sign a document that would standardize domestics for all movable inserts for food dishes and utensils, such as pans, trays, wire racks, drawers and trolleys, and also for kitchen equipment and refrigerators
Originally, the representatives had planned to create a new Swiss standard. But these plans were dropped in favour of the basic size of 530 mm by 325 mm, already the dimensions of standard American pans. The new standard was named Gastro-Norm. Foodservice groups and manufactures throughout the world have adopted this standard.
The food can remain in uniformly dimensioned containers from the time it is received throughout the entire operation (preparation, finishing, service, storage).
The Standardization has many Applications in Foodservice:
Pressure- cooking equipment ------------------------------
Walk-in and reach-in refrigerators ------------------------------and freezers
Bain- marie and steam tables ------------------------------
Storage units ------------------------------
Food lifts ------------------------------
Self-service buffets ------------------------------
The foodservice operator who adopt the Gastro-Norm standard can:
Ø Speed operating procedures
Ø Increase stacking volume in small areas
Ø Simplify internal transportation system
Ø Reduce working distance for staff and employees
Ø Allow universal use of the transport and storage units
Ø Reduce labour cost
Ø Standardize service ware
Ø Permit interchange-ability of units
Kitchen utensils are tools used daily in commercial kitchens. They must be scrupulously clean and in excellent working order. They should be cleaned immediately after each use and returned to their proper place.
They are grouped as follows:
Ø Kitchen utensils
Ø Flat Skimmer Deep Skimmer
Ø Soup Ladle Sauce Ladle
Ø Spider Reducing Spatula
Ø Fish Spatula Whisk
Ø Wooden Spatula Chinois
Ø Fine Chinois Wooden Sieve (Tamis)
Ø Etamine (Cheese Cloth) Spaetzli Sieve
Ø Food Mouler Mandoline
Ø Graters Colander
Ø Bain-Marie Branks, G-N. Containers
Ø Rubber Spatula Mixing Bowl
Ø Potato Spider Piping Bags, Nozzles
Ø Can Opener Steel Brush (cleaning chopping block)
Ø Plastic Chopping Block Egg Cutter
Ø Gastro-norm Trolley Storage Container
1. If carried, the knife point must be held downwards
2. Placed flat on the table, blade downwards
3. When using knives, keep your mind and eyes on the job
4. Use the correct knife for the correct purpose
5. Never leave knives lying in the sink
6. Always keep knives sharp and clean
7. A good knife is a good friend but it can be a dangerous weapon!
Ø Boning Knife Salmon Slicer
Ø Chefs Knife Slicer Knife
Ø Decorating Knife Steel
Ø Fillet Knife Spatula
Ø Paring Knife Sausage Fork
Ø Apple Corer Meat Fork
Ø Butter Curler Double Baller
Ø Lemon Decorator Lemon Zester
Ø Orange Peeler
The stove is the central preparation area for all hot meals. It consists of hot plates, ovens and gas burners, bain-marie and rechaud.
Ø Covered gas (Coup de feu)
The system of the stove is dependent on the type of establishment the local conditions also have to be thoroughly examined.
The stove must be cleaned after every service.
The hot plate must be greased after it has been cleaned.
Dirty gas burners must be soaked in acidic water overnight.
Combined Gas and Electric Stove
Covered Gas (Coupe De Feu)
Stock Pot Burner
Tilting Stock Pot- Direct Heat or Indirect Heat
Tilting Pan (Brat Pan)
Tilting Pressure PanVaro-Steamer
Grills-Hal Grill, Half Griddle
Deep Fat Fryer
Kitchen Food Processing Machines
Ø Combination Machine (All Purpose)
-Stainless steel basin with whisks, beater, dough hook
-All purpose grater / cutter with 3 grating discs and 1 cutting disc
-Meat mincer with 4 different discs
Ø Bone-cutting Band Saw
Ø Chopper Table-Top
Ø Vacuum Packing Machine
Ø Slicing Machine
Ø Blitz Blending Machine
Ø Fruit Juice Machine
Ø Pasta Making Machine
Ø Cream Dispenser
Ø Mechanical Weighting Scale
Ø Wall Bracket Scale
Ø Electrical Weighting Scale
Ø Potato Peeler
Ø Electrical Bone Saw
Ø Crushed Ice Machine
Ø Salad Dryer/ Salad Washer
Ø Vegetable Cutter
Refrigeration storage requirements are increasing with the use of more perishable, frozen and prepared food. These foods require storage temperatures that will preserve their quality and nutritive value and safeguard against loss from bacterial growth.
Fundamentally, removing heat creates cold. The principle of mechanical refrigeration is based upon the evaporation of a liquid (freon) refrigerant inside a sealed circuit and the re-condensation into a liquid. In order to evaporate, the gas removes heat from the chilling compartment. Every refrigeration and deep freezing plant should be equipped with an automatic defrosting devise. The ice that forms around the cooling element acts as insulation, delaying or even stopping its passage to the compressor. Each refrigerated area should be equipped with a thermostat to control its temperature.
There are basically two types of compressors for refrigeration equipment air-cooled and water-cooled. Air cooled equipment must be installed in a well-ventilated room to ensure the fresh flow of air. An automatic ventilation system can act as an aid. Water-cooled equipment requires relatively little space, but the water consumption is in direct ratio to its performance. The choice of one or the other of these two systems cannot be made until the local conditions have been thoroughly examined. Most compressors today are either partially or totally hermetically sealed. So that the electric motors rarely need servicing.
The design of refrigerated areas is dependent upon the type of establishment: hotel, restaurant, canteen, hospital or college. Each of these has its own specific requirements, and these must be considered when planning the size of the rooms, the length of time the goods will be stored, and the cooling procedure to be used- fast chilling, blast-freezing and frozen storage.
Refrigerators and freezers should be constructed in blocks, possibly placing the freezer in the centre. His type of construction offers advantages from the technical and insulation standpoint and in terms of construction and costs. The storage rooms for fruit and vegetables, fish and meat should be equipped with humidifiers.
The operational system must be determined before planning the walk-ins. These details will be necessary for calculating capacity and performance. Walk-ins must not have any steps so that trolleys can be pushed in with ease. Sufficient space must also be considered in the case of expansion.
Refrigerators and Standardized Refrigerated Units
All modern refrigerators, refrigerated units and refrigerated chests are standardized according to the accepted norms (Gastro-norm). All these units may be fitted with drawers to accommodate the gastro-norm inserts for the safe storage of food. The fan-cooling system is absolutely necessary to achieve sufficient airflow in these very compact units.
Storeroom Temperatures and Humidity
For ideal temperatures and humidity levels according to type of food.
Industrial Food Freezing Processes
Ø Blast- freezer process
Ø Multiple- plate contact process
Ø Tunnel process
Ø Flow- freezer [process
Ø Liquid nitrogen spraying process
Diagram of Refrigeration