Cordon Noir Education / Professional Chef
Recipe Book and Files
Natural products contain the most complete nutrients. They must however, to become palatable for human beings under go culinary preparation.
The skilled chef will decide on the appropriate cooking method, and then refine the products.
How do we differentiate between the word cooking and culinary art?
Cooking simply means:
The preparation of food applying a cooking method to make it edible and digestible.
Culinary art however means:
The refining of food taking the following points into consideration.
History of the Culinary Arts
To understand classic culinary history, one must consider the culinary arts as they relate to important cultural eras of western civilization. None of the arts-architecture, literature, music or the fine arts- can be fully appreciated without understanding the spirit of the age in which they were created. The same holds true for the culinary arts. The important events of an era are reflected in its food and culinary preferences.
The Eras of European Culture:
|Antiquity||888 B.C. to A.D. 400|
|Middle Ages||5th to 15th centuries|
|Renaissance||16th and 17th centuries|
|Baroque and Rococo||17th and 18th centuries|
|Industrial Revolution||Late 18th and 19th centuries|
Both historical events and exceptionally skilled chefs shaped the culinary arts. Individual chefs recorded their knowledge in books and other publications and often showed off their talent in culinary salons.
Many historic events are permanently immortalized in the culinary arts, because dishes were named in honour of the event or a person associated with it. Indeed, some states-men are more famous because of a dish named for them than because of their political exploits. Many famous musicians, poets, inventors and others also have dishes named after them.
Ø Classical Cuisine
Ø Commoners Cuisine
Ø Modern Cuisine- Nouvelle Cuisine
Ø Diet Cuisine
The Classical Cuisine
French cuisine is known as the classical cuisine> over the past centuries she has gained perfection. Delivery from past traditions and their own creation in culinary techniques, they have achieved excellent results, not only in taste but also in food presentation. The roots can be mainly traced to the French Court and Convents, where chefs were already preparing during the 5th but mainly the 17th and 18th centuries the most incredible dishes.
Newly created dishes, which are based on the old classical cuisine in their way of preparation and name, may also be categorized as classical.
Example: Boeuf a la mode
Selle de veau Orlor
Gigot dagneau a la boulangere
Poulet roti grand-mere
Carre de porc a lallemande
Blanquette de veau a lancienne
The Commoners Cuisine (farmhouse cooking)
The development of this cuisine is much simpler but never the less still nice and tasty. We refer here mainly to the local and regional specialities also known as home cooking.
Example: Osso buco
Emencé de veau zurichoise
Coque au vin
Goulache à lhongroise
The Modern Cuisine
In the past centuries not much was discovered as far as proper nutrition was concerned. It was most important that food tasted good and that it filled the stomach.
It was a rather unbalanced diet.
The chemical and biological discoveries and researching in food science have shown that it is of great importance to follow a well balanced diet. It is not necessary to be a vegetarian or only that you eat a full fibre diet.
The modern cuisine is based on the classical cuisine adapting the requirements and benefits of roughage present in fruits and vegetables. There is also a trend to keep the menus lower in calories but still fulfilling the needs of the human body.
Medallion de veau a la melisse citrine à lestragon au cerfeuil et au petit legumes
Selle dagneau farcie et pois manche tous
Filets de rouget au . de courgettes à la vapeur sabayon de Riesling
Medallion de boeuf au fond de ciboulette Brocoli et carrots au beurre
Over the past 40 years we have noticed many changes in eating habits. On one hand the fast food industry is flourishing, this mainly because people do not have the time to eat but many due to the different ways of up bringing and faster way of life.
On the other hand there is a trend to cook lighter, eat smaller, but well present portions, applying modern cooking methods such as steaming, grilling and cooking in a vacuum. For the modern cuisine only the best freshest products come into consideration. No wonder that restaurants know for modern cuisine has a reputation of being rather expensive. It may be mentioned that success for modern cuisine can only be obtained if the chef masters the classical cuisine.
A doctor applies this type of cuisine to customers who are ill and in need of a special diet prescribed.
In the gastronomy you seldom come across this cuisine. You will mainly find it in hospitals and sanatoriums or in modern time known in special hotels with spa facilities.
Arroser To baste a roast
Barder Barding: covering poultry or game birds with bacon slices
Brider To truss: tying up poultry, meat or game prior to cooking
Ciseler Making small cuts or incisions: especially on the back of fish to hasten its cooking
Clarifier To clarifies a liquid: consommé, butter
Déglacer Dissolve or dilute the concentrated juices in the pan in which meat, poultry, fish or game has been roasted or braised
Dégorger Clean parts of fish such as the brain, roe, etc., in fresh running water
Dégraisser To removes excess fat from boiling stock or to cut the fat from pieces of meat
Désosser Remove the meat from the bone
Emincer To cut into small slices
Ficeler To dress using string; to bind or tie with a string
Mariner To marinate; to place in a marinade
Paner To coat meats, fish or potatoes with breadcrumbs
Piquer To lard meat or poultry
Réduire To reduce a liquid; to boil down
Abattis Poultry giblets
Baron A single roast consisting of the leg and half saddle of lamb
Beurre manié Butter with flour, kneaded butter
Blinis Russian buckwheat flour cakes
Canapés Small pieces of toast spread with different meat, fish etc.
Carcasse Skeleton of poultry
Court-bouillon Stock of poached fish, sweetbread
Croûtons Diced or small slices of bread fried in butter
Darne Centre section of large fish (salmon, sturgeon etc.)
Fleurons Half moon cuts of puff pastry
Fruits de mer All kind of seafood, crustaceans or molluscs
Glace de viande Thickened stock from bones, meat, essence or extract
Marinade The liquid used for marinating
Matelote Sailors dish, made with fish or veal with red wine
Paupiettes Stuffed slices of meat-rolled
Quenelles Dumpling of meat, fish, poultry or game
Roux White mixture of butter and flour
Zeste Thin peel of lemon, orange or lime
Sachet dépieces Spice bag consisting of different herbs and spices
3. Objects, Materials
Bain-marie Water bath
Etamine Cheese cloth
Papilotte Paper frills
Sorbetière Container for ice cream, sherbets and ice
The food production system is the key to wholesome and palatable food, controlled food cost, and satisfied customers.
Standardized recipes are one of the most important tools for assuring high quality food production. A standardized recipe is one that has been tested and developed to meet the needs of a specific establishment. The available equipment, the skills of the food-service personnel, and the food budget must be considered. The yield is calculated for an exact quantity based on the predicted number of portions required and the specific portion size. The recipe is tested several times, until at least thee trials have produced a product of the desired quality and quantity.
One of most important tasks of a beginning chef involves compiling a file of standardized recipes. Similar files should be maintained for members of the food production staff.
A standardized format should be used for recording all recipes. The format of the recipe sheet or card should be designed to meet the organizations needs.
A recipe rack to which the recipe can be attached and placed over the chefs workstation is a convenience that will keep the recipe available and clean.
Nowadays there are alternatives such as computers, which can also be used to compile recipes, for example the Calcmenu, Fidelio etc.